And boom, after a flurry of activity last week, we're done with harvest. Last to arrive, on Saturday, was a final pick of Grenache, but the final week saw 72.8 tons from a whopping six different grapes: Tannat, Counoise, Mourvedre, Roussanne, and our small bock of Cabernet, in addition to the Grenache. And not just one pick of each. We saw six different Mourvedre picks, five Grenache picks, and two picks each for Counoise and Roussanne. This is not usually how things sequence out; in a normal year, we'd expect the last week to be dedicated to Mourvedre and Roussanne, while the other grapes are done. No wonder our hard-working cellar crew was ready to celebrate:
The compressed and overlapping picks were characteristic of 2016's harvest. Because we plan to use each of our fermentation tanks and casks as many as 6 times each harvest, the shorter the total duration of the harvest, the more pressure we have on our available space. But in the end, we managed to make it all fit, and were very happy with the quality we saw. But you can see from the below chart that it didn't follow a normal bell curve distribution, with a slow beginning and end. Instead, after a modest start, we stayed busy, with at least 70 tons coming in all of the last five weeks. In fact, our last two weeks were our two busiest weeks in terms of tons harvested off the estate. In the chart, blue is purchased fruit for the Patelin program, and orange estate grown fruit:
Yields were much better than 2015, and even a little above the levels we saw in 2013 and 2014. The increases were particularly noteworthy in the early grape varieties whose yields were so low last year, with grapes like Viognier, Vermentino, Grenache and Syrah all up 70% or more (of course, all those grapes were down at least 40% last year from our 2014 levels). But even with the later varieties, on which we weren't expecting much of an increase, we saw some, with Roussanne up 11.9% and Mourvedre up 32%. The complete picture, with 2014 added for some context:
||2014 Yields (tons)
||2015 Yields (tons)
||2016 Yields (tons)
||% Change vs. 2015
Overall yields ended up at 2.97 tons per acre, right at our ten-year average. Other years in which we've seen yields between 2.5 and 3 tons per acre have included 2003, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2013, and 2014, which includes many of our favorite vintages. Those crop levels seem to bring a balance of intensity and elegance that make the blending a pleasure in the spring.
Looking at average sugars and pH at harvest gives a quick way of measuring a year's ripeness. Since 2007:
2016's average sugars were our lowest-ever at harvest. Nearly every grape saw declines in average sugar levels, though most were small; only Tannat and Grenache Blanc saw (slightly) higher average sugar levels than in 2015. At the same time, we saw higher average pH levels than we have in the last decade, particularly in grapes like Roussanne and Mourvedre. I think that in this measurement is where you see the largest impact of our ongoing drought, as well as the impact of the warm weather starting mid-September. This idea is borne out by the fact that the vineyard looks exhausted now, in mid-October, at a time when in many years it's still leafy and green. Overall, it was a warm year, just a hair cooler than our warmest-ever year, 2014. Every month except May was warmer than average, even with a cool stretch that lasted nearly a month between mid-August and early September. The chart below summarizes (October's information is for the first 8 days, as we finished harvesting on October 8th):
We picked even more lots this year (114) than last, when we ran out of space on our harvest chalkboard. This too was necessitated by the drought; we wanted to get the fruit off the healthiest vines while they had good acids, while letting the clusters that were ripening more slowly continue to accumulate sugar, even at the price of lower acids.
All this happened in near-record time. At just 51 days between its August 18th beginning and its October 8th conclusion, this harvest clocks in at nearly a week shorter than average (our 10-year average is 57 days). The beginning was our earliest-ever, about two weeks earlier than normal, and the end our third-earliest, trailing just 2013 (by one day) and the warm, frost-reduced 2001 vintage (by 5 days). We're done nearly three weeks earlier than normal, and will face our third Harvest Wine Weekend (coming up this weekend) in the last four years with no fruit left to harvest.
In character, it's early to tell what things will be like, but two things give us good hopes for its prospects. First is the overall similarity in sequencing, weather, and yields to 2014, which we consider our best recent vintage overall. Second is the deep colors and intense aromas of what we've been harvesting. Skins on our red grapes appear to have been very thick. Flavors should be intense. One of the late-ripening Mourvedre clusters illustrates:
The last project for us for harvest 2016 is to make our first Roussanne Vin de Paille since 2012. This traditional dessert wine-making technique involves drying newly-harvested clusters on straw, and only pressing and beginning fermentation when they have reached our desired level of concentration -- typically around 35°-40° Brix -- after about 3 weeks. [For more details on how and why it's done, see our blog Vin de Paille: A Dessert Wine Making Technique for the Obsessed from a few years back]. We laid our last Roussanne pick, from Friday, down on straw in one of our greenhouses, and will spend the next few weeks tracking its progress.
A closeup shows the natural honey color of the Roussanne, which will only get more golden as it dries:
Now that the fruit is in, it's welcome to start raining any time. There is a hopeful forecast that suggests our first rain of the season may come as early as this weekend. Meanwhile, we're enjoying the autumnal views of the vineyard without having to worry that the cooler nights and the coming chance of precipitation may interfere with what, in a normal year, would still be harvest season.